Bismuth single crystals are created in both standard or custom dimensions, and in various orientations for thin film, optical, electronic, and other technology applications. They are produced using crystal growth methods such as the Bridgman process, and using extremely high purity starting materials. Bismuth single crystals are available as cut (unpolished), or polished on one or both sides.
A single crystal or mono-crystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries. The absence of the defects associated with grain boundaries can give mono-crystals unique properties, particularly mechanical, optical and electrical.