Manganese plays a key role in the development of various steelmaking processes. In fact, about 90% of all manganese consumed annually goes into steel as an alloying element. No other substitute has been found for manganese when producing steel, which combines its relatively low price with outstanding technical benefits.
Manganese is probably the most versatile element, which can be added to copper alloys. Small additions of manganese are used to deoxidise the alloy and improve its mechanical strength. In order to reduce costs, manganese can replace part of the nickel in nickel-silver alloys. Manganese is used in a number of other alloys such as titanium, zinc and is added to a number of alloys, which are used for very specific applications, generally related to the electronic industry. After steel the second most important market for manganese, in dioxide form, is that of portable dry cell batteries.