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Rhenium


Properties

 Rhenium is a hard, silvery-grey metal, which resists corrosion but tarnishes in moist air. It has a very high melting point– 3,185°C–with only the elements Tungsten and Carbon exceeding it. This makes Rhenium well suited for applications that demand resistance to high temperatures.

The fourth densest element in the periodic table, Rhenium is a largely stable metal since it does not easily react with oxygen or other substances, with the exception of strong acids such as sulphuric and nitric acids. Rhenium does not occur in a free state in nature or as a compound in a distinct mineral; it is instead it widely distributed in trace amounts in other minerals. As one of the rarest elements on the earth’s crust, the material is also expensive.

Applications

 The most significant use of Rhenium is as an additive to a variety of super-alloys, lending them useful properties. Tungsten and Molybdenum alloys with Rhenium are used for x-ray machines and oven filaments. Nickel based alloys that contain Rhenium are used to make single crystal turbine blades for high pressure aero (such as fighter jet) and industrial gas turbine engines. Nearly eighty percent of the world’s approximately 50-55 million ton annual consumption of Rhenium is directed to such complex nickel alloys. These alloys operate at extremely high temperatures, paving the way for more efficient fuel combustion and reduced emission of nitrous oxides. Since Rhenium and its alloys are an ideal metal for use at very high temperatures, they are suitable for rockets motors.

A second, significant application is in bi-metallic reforming catalysts: Platinum-Rhenium catalysts are used in the production of  lead-free, high-octane gasoline. Such catalysts resist poisoning (deactivation) and can be used for the hydrogenation of fine chemicals. Nearly 15 million tonnes of Rhenium is used for such catalysts each year, of which 80% of the material remains in a closed recycle loop. This means that the consumption of virgin metal is relatively small.

Since Rhenium has good wear resistance and can withstand arc corrosion, it is used as an electrical contact material and in instrument-bearing points. Thermocouples made of Rhenium compounds are used for measuring temperatures up to 2200C, and Rhenium-Tungsten alloy wire is used in photographic flash lamps as a bulb filament.

 Elemental of the metal include Foil, Lump, Rod, Wire, Sputtering Target and Powder, all of which are crucial for alloying and evaporation source material purposes. Thin Rhenium sheets and plates are used as electrode materials in high temperature and harsh conditions, in the production of electronic components and ultra high temperature heater tubes with metal evaporation in the electronics and semiconductor industries. Compared with other materials, Rhenium-based heating offers better electrical performance and longer life expectancy, making the material resistant to a harsh working atmosphere and favoured by users. True to metal foils, Rhenium foil is used for chemical vapor phase deposition coating and film(CVD) and physical vapor deposition(PVD) processes.

 Sources

The rate metal Rhenium has a natural concentration in the earth’s crust of roughly 1 part per billion. It is therefore extracted from a host ore–Molybdenite–and Porphyry Copper deposits. Molybdenite ores are the primary source of Rhenium as, typically, Molybdenite created as by product of mining Porphyry Copper deposits contains about 100 to 3,000 parts per million of Rhenium. The material’s Its main recovery occurs where copper is mined along the Pacific.

Rhenium comes in other forms such as foil, lump, powder, rod, wire and sputtering targets. 

Properties

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Aluminum
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and lustrous
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and Magnesium
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In contact with water
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It increases the strength of alloys of metals such as Chromium
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it reacts to form hydroxide
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Relatively stable in air and very unstable when separated
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Significantly enhances high-temperature oxidation resistance
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silver-metallic

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