Sputtering is a technology employed in the deposition of thin films from a wide variety of materials on to substrate of diverse shapes and sizes. The process is repeatable and can be scaled up from small research and development projects, to production batches for medium to large substrate areas. A sputtering target is a disc of a high purity material used as an atomic sputtering source for ion beam bombardment.
In the case of Silicon, high purity mono-crystalline Silicon is often used for sputtering targets. Material of the highest density and smallest average grain size is chosen, and is used in the making of semiconductors, in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD), and in optical applications.